Associations of fibroblast growth factor 23, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone with 5-year outcomes in a prospective primary care cohort of people with chronic kidney disease stage 3.
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency, elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) have each been associated with increased mortality in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous studies have focused on the effects of FGF23 in relatively advanced CKD. This study aims to assess whether FGF23 is similarly a risk factor in people with early CKD, and how this risk compares to that associated with vitamin D deficiency or elevated PTH. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirty-two primary care practices. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand six hundred and sixty-four people who met Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definitions for CKD stage 3 (two measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at least 90 days apart) prior to study recruitment. OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause mortality over the period of study follow-up and progression of CKD defined as a 25% fall in eGFR and a drop in GFR category, or an increase in albuminuria category. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-nine participants died during the follow-up period. Vitamin D deficiency (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.58) and elevated PTH (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.84) were independently associated with all-cause mortality. FGF23 was associated with all-cause mortality in univariable but not multivariable analysis. Fully adjusted multivariable models of CKD progression showed no association with FGF23, vitamin D status or PTH. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of predominantly older people with CKD stage 3 and low risk of progression, vitamin D deficiency and elevated PTH were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality but elevated FGF23 was not. While FGF23 may have a role as a risk marker in high-risk populations managed in secondary care, our data suggest that it may not be as important in CKD stage 3, managed in primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Portfolio Study Number 6632.