Who Should Be Investigated for Haematuria? Results of a Contemporary Prospective Observational Study of 3556 Patients
Abstract: There remains a lack of consensus among guideline relating to which patients require investigation for haematuria. We determined the incidence of urinary tract cancer in a prospective observational study of 3556 patients referred for investigation of haematuria across 40 hospitals between March 2016 and June 2017 (DETECT 1; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02676180) and the appropriateness of age at presentation in cases with visible (VH) and nonvisible (NVH) haematuria. The overall incidence of urinary tract cancer was 10.0% (bladder cancer 8.0%, renal parenchymal cancer 1.0%, upper tract transitional cell carcinoma 0.7%, and prostate cancer 0.3%). Patients with VH were more likely to have a diagnosis of urinary tract cancer compared with NVH patients (13.8% vs 3.1%). Older patients, male gender, and smoking history were independently associated with urinary tract cancer diagnosis. Of bladder cancers diagnosed following NVH, 59.4% were high-risk cancers, with 31.3% being muscle invasive. The incidence of cancer in VH patients <45 yr of age was 3.5% (n = 7) and 1.0% (n = 4) in NVH patients <60 yr old. Our results suggest that patients with VH should be investigated regardless of age. Although the risk of urinary tract cancer in NVH patients is low, clinically significant cancers are detected below the age threshold for referral for investigation.