LIMPRINT in Specialist Lymphedema Services in United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Turkey.
Background: There is no standardized international model for specialist lymphedema services, which covers the types of lymphedema treated and the treatments provided. The aim of this study was to provide a profile of patients attending specialist lymphedema services in different countries to explore similarities and differences. Methods and Results: The LIMPRINT core tool was used in specialist lymphedema services in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Turkey. Services in Turkey saw a slightly younger age group, with a higher proportion of female patients reflecting a particular focus on breast cancer-related lymphedema. There were higher levels of obesity and restricted mobility in patients in the United Kingdom compared with other countries. Italy and France saw the highest percentage of patients with primary lymphedema. Diabetes was a common comorbidity in the United Kingdom and Turkey. The United Kingdom saw the largest number of patients with lower limb lymphedema. Conclusions: The results show a wide range of complexity of patients treated in specialist lymphedema services. Some of the differences between countries may reflect different stages in the evolution of specialist lymphedema services, rather than a true difference in prevalence, with those with "younger" services treating a high proportion of patients with cancer and those with more established services treating a wider range of different types of lymphedema, including more elderly people with multiple comorbidities.