A Systematic Review of the Acute Effects of Hemodialysis on Skeletal Muscle Perfusion, Metabolism, and Function
Introduction: The underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle wasting in hemodialysis patients are complex. We performed a systematic review to summarize evidence on whether hemodialysis has acute effects on skeletal muscle perfusion, metabolism, and function. Methods: The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (Registration number CRD42018103682). A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science. Citation, reference list, and gray literature searches were also performed. Studies were selected in 2 stages: title and abstract review, then full-text review. Results: A total of 65 full-text articles were reviewed, and 14 studies were eligible for inclusion. No studies were identified that assessed muscle perfusion during dialysis. Two studies used near-infrared spectroscopy to indirectly measure skeletal muscle oxygen consumption, which increased during dialysis in 1 study but only in patients with diabetes in the second. Metabolism was examined in 9 studies. A number of acute metabolic changes were reported (e.g., caspase-3 activity, polyubiquitin, and interleukin-6 protein increased in response to hemodialysis) as was a net negative protein balance over the dialysis session. Three studies examining muscle function did not produce consistent findings. Conclusion: Gaps remain in understanding the acute effects of hemodialysis on skeletal muscle, particularly for changes in perfusion and function, although there does appear to be an acute effect on muscle metabolism.
- Specialist Medicine